After the end of the catastrophe in 1948, and the declaration of the rising of Israel on 15th, May 1948, most Palestinian territories became under the domination of Israel except some areas which are still retaining the Palestinian identity. They are so called, "West Bank", Gaza Strip and East Jerusalem, the area of the Holy Places. Due to these wars, about one million Palestinians were expelled out, to live as refugees in the neighbor Arab countries.
Moreover, the wars caused social traces on the Palestinian community, which was dispersed and dissociated.
On 30th, September 1948, the common Government of Palestine was founded by an initiative of High Arab board presided by Ahmad Hilmy Basha who was not too influential to mention.
On the first of October 1948 A.C. "Amman first conference" was held and decisions were taken authorizing King Abdullah the right to represent and talk for the Palestinian people.
It was followed by "Jericho Conference", which was held on the first of December 1948 paving the way for Jordan to annex the West Bank.
During that period, the political life was unemployed until the first Israeli occupation took place on Gaza Strip in 1956, which resurrected resistance preceded by commando operations led by Egyptian officers. The most important Palestinian activities prevailing at that period, were the creation of some establishments, organizations and political movements which called for the restoration of the Palestinian territories and the resistance of the Zionist occupation from 1956 till the rising of PLO.
Those establishments were:
- Palestine Students General Union in 1956.
- Land Movement in 1948.
- Arab National Unity in 1958.
Also, there were, during that period, some movements and Arab factions which extended their activies to the Palestinian territories. They supported and assisted Palestinians in their problem, like Arab socialist Ba'ath and Arab Nationalist Movement.
1964-1967 - PLO Establishment
For all the circumstances encircling the Palestinian problem throughout the different historical epochs, besides the Arab weakness and disappointment to vanquish the Zionist danger off Palestine and Arab Lands, there were many outcries calling the Palestinians to bear their responsiblities towards this striking danger. The Palestinians are in dire need for an establishment to represent, manage their affairs in facing this malicious hurricane which is threatening their existance.
According to a decision taken in the Arab summit conference which was held in Cairo by a call from “President AbdelNasser” from 13-16 January 1964, requested to establish a Palestinian entity. Consequently, “Ahmad Al Shoqairy” hastened to establish the Palestinian entity by calling for preliminary meetings in the countries where Palestinians lived so as to elect their representatives to the “First Palestinian National Council in Jerusalem on 28th May 1964 and the establishment of PLO.
On 28th May 1964 the First Palestinian National Council was held in Jerusalem under the auspices of king Hussein and the participation of all Arab countries at the level of foreign ministers except Saudi Arabia.
The conference acknowleged “The Palestinian National convention” and system principles of PLO.
On concluding its work, Al Shoqairy declared on 2nd June the birth of PLO representative of the Palestinian people and the leader of its struggle to liberate its homeland.
PLO founded some attached establishments, like, Palestinian Liberation Army, broadcast, research center, and Bureaus in most world countries, Palestinian popular unions, and the Palestinian National council. Thus, PLO has been established with a national conceptual sense of Liberation and National resistence under an integreted process including all means of struggle and up growing at the civilian and military levels. The organiation has been launched towards realizing its goals through the available means and support.
Palestinian Liberation Organization since 1967
Significant developments happened on the Palestinian grounds between the third and the fourth terms of the Palestinian National Council. During that period, Al shoqairy was eliminated of the organization presidency by the end of 1967 A.C. provided that Yehia Hammouda should be in charge of the PLO chairman. PLO initiated to concentrate contacts with the commando organizations in order to merge under its banner.
1967 war resulted in the entire occupation of the Palestinian Lands as well as the Syrian Golan Heights and the Egyptian Sinai peninsula after the defeat of the Arab armies.
In PNC’s fifth term, which was held in Cairo from 1-4 February 1969, Yehia Hamouda was elected as the PNC chairman and an executive committee was constituted including Fatah, Al Sa’eqa, PLO, and the independents. Yaser Arafat was elected chairman of the new committee and Ibrahim Baker as his depuly. Thus PLO was entirely dominated by the commando organizations.
Popular Intifada In The Occupied Territories
The military defeats and setbacks created frustrating sensations and despair among Palestinians. Generally, a state of interia and inanition prevailed in Palestine.
Palestinians were anticipating that Great States should compel Israel to withdraw from the Palestinian territories. Meanwhile, Israel was doing its best to avoid, by all means, any clashes with the Palestinian citizens. So, it created a state of security and the best social circumstances in an attempt to confirm and fortify its existence which had been founded on the bases of occupation. This period lasted till the outset of seventies as people felt the danger of occupation in restricting and controlling all fields of life. Subsequently the resistance broke out again. Confrontations were revived specially in Gaza Strip where tens of people were killed and wounded. The resistence had gained a tremendous momentum in the mid of seventies as a result of victories realized by Arab armies in October 1973 war. It raised the morals and abated the Israeli military overdomination legend.
Since then, the popular resistence escalated due to the Zionist violence on the people. There were interrelated stages of insistent resistance, which was enthrond in Gaza Jabalia Camp on 8/12/1987 when an Israeli ranover a great number of Palestinians on their way to work in Israel, by his huge trailer killing four innocent citizens. Thus, the first sparkle was ignited and spread through out all parts of Palestine. That period continued until the Israeli forces withdrew from some Palestinian areas after signing Oslo agreement in 1993.
This strong Intifada expressed the indignation of citizens and their unbearable patience to absorb the disgraceful and humiliating behaviour of occupation. So, hundreds of martyrs and wounded sacrified their life so that any Palestinian house had been hardly excluded of martyrs, injuries, prisoners or disabled.